Friday, March 13, 2020

The Causes of Bribery and Corruption Essays - Business Ethics

The Causes of Bribery and Corruption Essays - Business Ethics Corruption refers to the abuse or misuse of entrusted power by individuals for personal gain (Pickett although up to date, they have attracted increasing attention. It is unclear whether the attention of corruption and bribery reflect a growing awareness or a growing scope of the vice. Nonetheless, according to Cheng and Ma (2009) corruption and bribery has increased within the recent decades. The factors or causes, which encourage corruption, are those, which influence the demand for corrupt acts, as well as those, which influence the supply of acts or deeds of corruption. Factors influencing the demand include authorizations and regulations, some spending decisions, as well as provision of services and goods at prices that are below-market. Factors influencing the supply of deeds or acts of corruption include bureaucratic tradition, penalty systems, institutional controls, level or degree of public sector incomes, transparency of laws, processes, and rules, and examples of the leadership (Bowen, Edwards & Cattell 2012). The Causes of Bribery and Corruption One of the factors or causes always mentioned particularly for corruption is the inadequate remuneration of employees or civil servants. One can hold against a view that within states where corruption is unchecked or rampant, unemployment is always high and civil servants are advantaged to the point that they have secured a job and remuneration. Nonetheless, according to perverse reasoning, the view is always made that remuneration or salaries of the state employees can be kept low as they have privilege to supplement with bribes (Nestor 2009). Moreover, salaries are always not paid regularly and it is normal for civil servants to go without salary. Even in situations when salaries are paid, unwritten rules can force civil servants to support their extended family with favors and cash. The instability or insecurity of the political structures of many nations or societies is a major source of corruption. Politicians purchase votes to secure electoral positions, and once in, indulge into corruption to secure financial independence because they do not expect pension once out of office. Within many nations, the common argument is cynically conveyed that individuals who never exploit such opportunity are stupid and naive rather than honest (Masciandaro 2010). State capture happens when interest groups like business sectors and corporations are capable of influencing the process of law making. Within various transition economies, bribery and corruption have advanced exponentially due to state capture by some oligarchs willing to purchase off politicians, judges and bureaucrats to serve personal interests (Mills 2009). Peer pressure can too lead to public officials involving into corruption and bribery since the latter or corruption is quasi institutionalized within branches of civil service or system of government. It is challenging for newcomers to question a system in which boss is part. The Means and Ways of Corruption Corruption is executed in many shapes and forms and the thoughts of the corrupt appears to have no boundary as to the paths and methods pursued to attain their goal. No matter the cause of bribery and corruption, it often includes the misuse of discretionary power and/or of total control over a service or a resource as a lever. With this respect, every requirement for a formal authorization, every point of control as well as every regulation is possible toll stations. Therefore, it is not surprising that societies or nations where corruption and bribery is rampant show an especially dense regulatory environment (Ragatz & Duska 2010). Threats or risks of an unfavorable or poor decision: it is regrettably a frequent event within some societies or nations for the police officers to stop drivers then accuse them of an alleged or real violation of traffic with certain hint that it may be settled or cleared via direct payment. Immigration or customs officers can ACCEPT PAYMENT via cash to clear individuals or goods via immigration even if certain documents are

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